An examination of the DNA of 1,983 people from around the globe suggests that extinct human species such as Homo neanderthalensis or Homo heidelbergensis interbred with our own ancestors during two separate periods, and their genes remain in our DNA today. The research was carried out by a group of genetic anthropologists from the University of New Mexico, and leader of the team, Jeffrey Long, said the findings mean Neanderthals did not completely disappear, but “there is a little bit of Neanderthal left over in almost all humans.”The subjects of the study were drawn from 99 population groups in the Americas, Oceania, Europe, Asia, and Africa, and the researchers analyzed over 600 microsatellite positions on the genome, which are sections that can be used rather like fingerprints. Doctoral student Sarah Joyce then developed an evolutionary tree to explain the genetic variations found in the microsatellite positions. The results were unexpected, but Joyce said the best explanation for the variations was that our human ancestors and the archaic species interbred during two periods after the first Homo sapiens had left Africa: the first in the Mediterranean around 60,000 years ago, and the second in eastern Asia about 45,000 years ago. The group found no evidence of the interbreeding in the DNA of modern Africans included in the study.The findings suggest that after the first interbreeding populations migrated from the Mediterranean to North America, Europe and Asia. A second interbreeding in Asia then altered the genome of the people who went on to migrate to Oceania.The findings were presented on 17th April at the American Association of Physical Anthropologists’ annual meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where they created a great deal of interest among other researchers in the field, who had been attempting to explain some curious variations in the genome. One researcher, Linda Vigilant from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, said the findings may help explain what she called “subtle deviations” in the genetic variations in the Pacific region.Other researchers from the Max Planck Institute, led by Svante Pääbo, finished sequencing the first draft of the Neanderthal genome last year. (See the PhysOrg article here.) The results are expected to be published soon and may shed more light on the possibility of interbreeding. Earlier research suggested interbreeding did not occur, but unlike Pääbo’s latest research these early results were not based on an analysis of the complete genome. Homo neanderthalensis, adult male. Credit: John Gurche, artist / Chip Clark, photographer Citation: Neanderthals may have interbred with humans twice (2010, April 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-04-neanderthals-interbred-humans.html © 2010 PhysOrg.com Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — Extinct human species such as Neanderthals may still be with us, at least in our DNA, and this may help explain why they disappeared from the fossil record around 30,000 years ago. New ancestor? Scientists ponder DNA from Siberia This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
A horseshoe orbit gets its name because when viewed from Earth’s point of view, the asteroid appears to travel in a shape of a horseshoe. However, from the perspective of the asteroid, it is in a continual orbit around the sun.To better understand this horseshoe orbit it must be understood that objects closer to the sun will orbit at a faster rate than objects of a further distance.Imagine this asteroid is on an orbit around the Sun just slightly closer than that of Earth. Given the fact the asteroid is closer it is traveling at a slightly faster rate than Earth. Eventually the asteroid will approach Earth and what happens next is what gives the appearance of a horseshoe.Given that the Earth is larger its gravity will work to pull the asteroid away from the Sun, eventually pulling the asteroid into an orbit which is a greater distance from the sun than Earth. The asteroids new orbital track will then be slower than that of Earth, making it appear to fall behind and look as though it is going in the opposite direction.As both the Earth and the asteroid continue to orbit, eventually the Earth will catch up to the asteroid and the process will reverse, with the Earth’s gravity pulling the asteroid back into the smaller orbit.The belief of astronomers has been that horseshoe orbits are not stable. However, Christou and Asher have run simulations and they show that SO16 remains in this horseshoe orbit for anywhere from 120,000 to over a million years.Currently SO16 is traveling at one of its closest approach points and will hold a place in the evening sky for several decades to come. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Horseshoe orbit. Image: NASA Asteroid To Fly By Earth Wednesday Is a Natural (PhysOrg.com) — Apostolos Christou and David Asher from the Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland announced the discovery of an asteroid near Earth called Asteroid 2010 SO16 and their findings were published on arXiv.org. While finding near-Earth asteroids is not unusual, there is something quite rare about this particular asteroid in that it orbits the sun in what is referred to as a horseshoe orbit. © 2010 PhysOrg.com More information: A long-lived horseshoe companion to the Earth, arXiv:1104.0036v1 [astro-ph.EP] arxiv.org/abs/1104.0036via Technology Review Citation: New horseshoe orbit Earth-companion asteroid discovered (2011, April 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-04-horseshoe-orbit-earth-companion-asteroid.html
More information: Quasi-liquid layers on ice crystal surfaces are made up of two different phases. Published online before print January 9, 2012, PNAS January 24, 2012 vol. 109 no. 4 1052-1055, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1116685109 Visualization of elementary steps growing beneath a thin liquid-like layer (β-QLL) at −1.0 °C. The gain and offset of the image A were further extremely adjusted to obtain image B. Image C was taken 3.27 s after image B. (D) A schematic cross-sectional view showing two possible mechanisms (red arrows) discussed in the text for the visualization of elementary steps beneath the β-QLL. (E) Schematic illustration of the appearances of two types of QLL phases (α and β). A movie of the process B-C is shown below. Copyright © PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1116685109 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Led by Professor Yoshinori Furukawa and Associate Professor Gen Sazaki at Hokkaido University’s the Institute of Low Temperature Science, the research team faced a number of challenges in uncovering the subnanometer structures and processes that held the key to understanding QLLs. “In 2004, I and Olympus Corporation developed an advanced optical microscope,” Sazaki told PhysOrg.oom, “by which we can visualize elementary steps – that is, the growing ends of ubiquitous molecular layers that are several nanometers in height – on protein crystals. We kept improving this microscope further, and finally succeeded in visualizing elementary 0.37 nm-thick steps on ice crystal surfaces. Since this optical microscope has ultimate sensitivity in the vertical direction, we could visualize surface melting processes of ice crystals for the first time.” Sazaki quickly acknowledges, however, that the appearance of QLLs on ice was first proposed by English physicist Michael Faraday in 1842. Regarding the impact of the team’s findings on the development of applications and technologies where surface melting-induced QLLs are a key factor, Sazaki told PhysOrg that it’s been believed that QLLs play important roles in the variety of phenomena mentioned above. “Since we can now directly visualize the surface melting processes, we can start to reveal the secrets of those phenomena.”In addition, Sazaki concludes, their research “will contribute to various fields such as meteorology, environmentology, cryobiology, material science, crystal growth physics, and other important areas.” Summary of the main findings of this study. Hokkaido University researchers found that two-types of quasi-liquid layers (QLLs) appeared on a basal face of an ice crystal during surface melting. With increasing temperature, round liquid-like droplets (α-QLLs) first appeared at −1.5 to −0.4 °C. In addition, thin liquid-like layers (β-QLLs) appeared at −1.0 to −0.1 °C. The appearance temperatures of α-QLLs and β-QLLs exhibited slight variations, but β-QLLs always appeared at a higher temperature than α-QLLs in the same run. These two QLL phases moved around and coalesced on the ice crystal surface. The different morphologies and dynamics of the two types of QLLs demonstrate that the two types of QLL phases had different interactions with ice crystal surfaces, suggesting the necessity of constructing a novel picture of surface melting. Copyright © PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1116685109 Citation: The hidden nanoworld of ice crystals: Revealing the dynamic behavior of quasi-liquid layers (2012, January 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-01-hidden-nanoworld-ice-crystals-revealing.html PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Play Visualization of elementary steps growing beneath a β-QLL at −1.0 °C (see fig. above – B and C). Frame rate was 3.27 s per frame. The gain and offset of LCMDIM images were extremely adjusted to emphasize the contrast level of the images. An α-QLL is located at the center, and a β-QLL exists around the α-QLL.We could observe the growth of elementary steps even beneath the β-QLL, demonstrating that a β-QLL was a quasi-liquid layer. To reduce the file size, the video file was converted from 1024 x 1042 pixels to 256 x 262 pixels. Copyright © PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1116685109 In terms of simulation, Sazaki points out that it will be difficult to fully model two QLL phases in silico, since still the physical and chemical properties of those phases are unknown. However, he adds, studies using molecular dynamics will also contribute significantly to our understanding of surface melting. Swimming upstream: Flux flow reverses for lattice bosons in a magnetic field Copyright 2012 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — A wide range of phenomena depend on ice – specifically, phase transitions during ice crystal surface melting. In this transition, which occurs near the melting point, the ice surface morphs into what is known as a quasi-liquid layer (QLL) – a thin layer of ice grains where the water molecules are not in rigid solid structure, yet not in the random order of liquid. While previous research showed that QLL thickness increased with temperature, the results varied by as much as two orders of magnitude. Recently, however, scientists at Hokkaido University, in conjunction with Olympus Engineering Co., Ltd., developed a technique – laser confocal microscopy combined with differential interference contrast microscopy – that increases spatiotemporal resolution to point needed to visualize transition process of the 0.37nm (the thickness of one water molecule) step-like crystal surface at 0.1 – 4 seconds per frame. Their findings provide molecular-level understanding of QLLs that has implications for many QLL-dependent applications, including skating rink slipperiness, regelation (pressure-induced change in freezing), ice column frost heave, recrystallization and coarsening of ice grains, morphological change of snow crystals, cryopreservation, and electrification of thunderclouds. Sazaki also outlined the key insights and innovations the team used to address these challenges. “So far, it has been thought that only one type of quasi-liquid layer appear uniformly on ice crystal surfaces during the surface melting below 0 °C. However, we found that two types of QLL phases appear dynamically and spatially inhomogeneously. This result marked a sharp divergence from the previous view.” In addition, Sazaki adds that it’s quite interesting, from the fundamental scientific viewpoint, that two liquid phases made up of same water molecules are immiscible – that is, not forming a homogeneous mixture when added together.Looking forward, Sazaki notes that surface-sensitive spectroscopy techniques, as well as scanning probe microscopy, will give the team a greater ability to understand the two QLL phases – in particular, how they differ. “We’re planning to develop a Raman microscope that, when combined with our present microscope, will allow us to measure the molecular motion of water. This will reveal how the two quasi-liquid layer phases are different.”
© 2012 Phys.Org With the mystery solved, the team hopes that more research by others in the field will focus on the somewhat mysterious life cycle of the so called zombie worms. Also of interest no doubt, will be the exact makeup of the acid the worms secrete and how it is dealt with by the internal bacteria that do the work of turning the bone material into food. To find out what was going on Katz and her team analyzed the green root-like part of the worm that attached itself to the outside of the bone. There they found that the structure was made of long cells, each with tiny protrusions that allowed the worm to cover a lot of bone territory. They also found that the cells had acid secreting enzymes that moved through the skin which was able to break down the minerals in the bone material, and that was how they managed to worm their way inside. (Phys.org) — In 2002, researchers from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute discovered a unique species of worms in the ocean that live off of the skeletons of dead fish and whales on the sea floor, by boring into them; giving rise to the nick-name, zombie worms. What was perplexing though, was how they managed this trick since they lacked mouths, teeth or even a gut. Closer analysis over the years found that the worms lacked any other means for drilling as well, causing most to believe they made their way into bone material using some sort of chemical process, rather than drilling. Now new research by Sigrid Katz and colleagues from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography proves that to be the case. She and her team are to give a presentation regarding their findings at this year’s Society for Experimental Biology conference. These “bone-devouring worms,” known to both eat and inhabit dead whale skeletons and other bones on the sea floor, have a unique ability to release bone-melting acid. Credit: Greg Rouse The worms, of the Osedax (bone devourer in Latin) family, further added to their mystery when subsequent research failed to turn up any males of the species. More recently, other researchers found that this was because the males never grow out of their larval stage and simply live inside the bodies of the females indefinitely. Other researchers had also found that the worms had assistance from bacteria living inside of them to digest the bone material once it made its way inside. But how it got there was still a bit of a mystery. Citation: Researchers discover how ‘zombie worms’ bore into skeletons (2012, July 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-07-zombie-worms-skeletons.html Explore further The pinkish “bone-devouring worms” shown here on a piece of whale bone, eat and inhabit dead whale skeletons and other bones on the sea floor. A recent study has shown they have a unique ability to release bone-melting acid. Credit: MBARI Bone-eating ‘zombie’ worms can no longer hide More information: Conference abstract A7.17Drilling for nutrition: The physiological mechanism of bone penetration by OsedaxAnnelids belonging to Siboglinidae lack a gut and obtain nutrition via bacterial symbionts housed in a specialized organ called the trophosome.While most siboglinids host chemoautotrophic symbionts, which allow them to thrive in reducing habitats such as hydrothermal vents or methaneseeps, Osedax exploits vertebrate bones lying on the seafloor. In contrast to other siboglinids, Osedax house heterotrophic Oceanospirillalesbacteria in their posterior body, which are modified into so-called ‘roots’. These roots penetrate and ramify through the bone, which serves as their food source (Goffredi et al., 2007). Osedax lack any obviously bioabrasive structures and the physiological mechanism of bone erosion and nutrient absorption was virtually unknown. The ultrastructure of the root epidermis suggests secretory/ absorptive functions of this region and we hypothesized that Osedax demineralize the bone by secreting acid, followed by absorption of bone collagen and lipids for nutrition. Our analysis of putative acid-secreting proteins, namely vacuolar H+ -ATPase (VHA) and carbonic anhydrase (CA), by immunohistochemistry and quantitative immunoblotting, shows preferential location and high abundance of VHA in the root epidermal cells. CA also co-occurs with VHA in the root epidermis, and is found in other cells and body regions, suggesting that CA is also involved in maintaining the acid–base balance throughout the worm. These results support our hypothesis on bone erosion via acid secretion by Osedax, which is similar to chemical mechanisms employed for boring by some gastropods and for bone demineralization by human osteoclasts.Poster Session – Sunday 1st July 2012 Osedax frankpressi from whale-2893. Image: Vrijenhoek R. C., Johnson S. B. & Rouse G. W. (10 November 2009) “A remarkable diversity of bone-eating worms (Osedax; Siboglinidae; Annelida)”. BMC Biology 7: 74. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-7-74 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
We love our food, of course we do. And that is not just because it is a part of our job! What goes best with this season has already been talked about by Chef Saby (read it here – http://bit.ly/I0T0OP). But here we pick out a few places that you can add to your ‘have-to-eat-at’ list.Shiro, at the Samrat, is dishing out some great dishes at The Asian Grill festival that is on till 8 December. Take your pick from vegetarian, meats and the seafoods for some incredible flavours. With prices of each dish ranging between Rs 300 to Rs 800 (without taxes), one serving is not going to be enough to fill you up so make sure you order something more. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’We tried the Honey Black Bean Prawns, the Grilled Coffee Salmon, the Seven Spiced Pork Belly and the Miso Herb Lamb Chops. The flavours are delicate and very nice on the palate, though the salmon was a little disappointing the rest made up for that beautifully.The chef also recommended a great Indonesian fried rice which went very well with the prawns. You can take your pick from the regular menu as well as from the special grill menu they have for the festival. Vegetarians can try the Grilled Mushroom Skewers or the Pan Seared Tofu with Indonesian Ginger Sauce. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixShiro also has some mean cocktails. Head over!When you have Bengali food on offer – you don’t need to invite us twice! Baywatch at the WelcomHotel Sheraton has a great food promo, that they are calling Bhadrolok (Gentlemen in Bengali), on offer till 24 November.The range includes starters like Crabmeat Chop, Mochar Chop, Chicken Kabiraji Cutlet and more. The Crabmeat chop is a must try. They also have a the signature Macher Paturi that is criminal to miss when you trying a Bengali cuisine. The Kosha Mangsho and the Luchi is perfect but take it from us – you need to try the Cholar Dal they have – or regret it forever. Try it with the Koraishutir Kochuri (Green Pea stuffed Kachoris) and it is blissful.The dinner buffet is priced at Rs 2000 (plus taxes) and they are also celebrating a tie-up of sorts with Indus Pride beer. Winter isn’t a time for beer, but these great spiced varieties are not to be missed. Book a table fast!
Heard Sajna Tere Bina or the Punjabi rap song, Ghaint Kudi? Well, the rapper you heard is the youngest female rapper. After Hard Kaur, Ish Kaur has made it big for herself in this male dominated form of art. More than a century before rap exploded onto the American music scene, west African musicians were telling stories rhythmically, with just the beat of a drum for accompaniment. Meanwhile, folk artistes from the Caribbean Islands were also telling stories in rhyme. Indeed, these singing poets from Africa and the Caribbean lay the foundation for modern-day American rap music. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The rhymes often address provocative subjects such as sex, violence and socio-political issues and has been acknowledged as the voice of the youth for decades and this is exactly where Kaur has made her place.At the age of 18, Kaur has bagged the Bharat Niraman Award for being the youngest female rapper. Since her childhood days she was influenced by Hip-Hop music and at the young age of 13 she wrote her first Rap Sajna Tere Bina. With her interest inclined towards an unusual profession, especially in our country, it was definitely not easy for her to convince her parents. But can talent stay latent for long? Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixSeeing her singing talent and her dedication, she successfully convinced her parents. It’s then she took her first step towards the commercial music. And let’s say that she convinced not just her parents, but also the social media world, where people are following not in hundreds but in thousands. An underground rap artiste, Kaur is fast emerging as a prodigy rap talent who has gone beyond the culture to fit into India’s young and happening crowd. She blends age old wisdom in her songs in a new Hip-Hop style of the youth which has made her appealing to the listeners. Apart from writing lyrics and rapping, she is also trained in many dance forms. From Bharatanatyam, Hip-hop to Salsa, she has got it all in her. Let’s say she has left nothing that wouldn’t craft her as a complete artiste on the stage. Being 18 also means board exams in India. Well, Kaur is not only a talented rapper but also a studious child. She cleared her 12 Board Examination, 2014 with 92%. She never mixed her professional life with her studies and is also very clear about completing her education. ‘Rapping has always been on my mind and Rap is what I live. With all the love, affection and blessings of my fans and well wisher, I hope to make it bigger in Rapping Industry’, says contented Ish Kaur.
Looking Inward An Art Exhibition is a Group Show by 20 Artists, the show has been Curated by Elizabeth Rogers. The Exhibition is a part of the ongoing festival of Buddhism The Inner Path directed by Aruna Vasudev.The Artists who are participating are The 12th Kenting Tai Situpa , Shobha Broota, Arpana Caur, Jamyang Dorjee Chakrishar, Qamar Dagar, Vinita Dasgupta, Saba Hasan, Cannon Hersey,Jasleen, Rajeev Kumar , Bryan Mulvihill, Shefali Munjal, Felicia Murray , Sohan Qadri , SirajSaxena, Niren Sen Gupta, Sidharth , Kshipra Simon, Deepak Tandon, Aruna Vasudev. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The Exhibition will be on from 21 – 24 November at the Alliance Francaise Lodhi Road. As this exhibition is a part of a Buddhism Festival all the Artists have created their art works related to the same topic.Creativity in art, even more so the spiritual, is an often misused, abused and misunderstood concept. How to render such an introspective, private process in an actual, tangible entity; such is the nature of art. The myriad manifestations are beyond sheer definition. The realms of sacred or spiritual inspiration inculcate complex relations between the artist and her/his work, and eventually the viewer. Historically, such work has required dedicated devotion, discipline and years of study. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixContemporary practice takes beings on varied trajectories, deploying a complex lexicon of form, imagery and iconography. Looking Inward presents works by artists from varying geographical and personal backgrounds. An underlying thread is their quest for a broader meaning and circumference for their vision. Beyond the medium, whether painting, calligraphy, sculpture, photography or ceramics, such a sense of deeper significance to their visual representations reigns. Buddhism in Art traditionally has evolved from the non-figural depiction of the Buddha to all forms. Thus, what imbues the creator is that upon which the energy of the work lies. As with meditation, the creative process delves into deeper levels of consciousness and awareness.The path to explore, question, and understand involves and challenges all beings. It is hoped that this project shall proffer fertile ground for renewed discourse, examination and insight.
Darjeeling: Air Asia will be operating two new flights to Bagdogra Airport near Siliguri from May. Bagdogra has evolved into one of the busiest and most important airports of this region, with a manifold increase in passenger footfall. In the financial year 2017-18, the passenger figure is expected to cross 2.2 million. “From May, Air Asia will be operating two new flights to Bagdogra. This will help ease the passenger traffic, especially during the peak tourist season,” stated Rakesh Sahay, Director, Bagdogra Airport. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsFrom May 1, an Air Asia flight will depart from Delhi at 4 pm and arrive at Bagdogra at 6.15 pm. The flight will depart from Bagdogra at 6:45 pm and arrive at Delhi at 9.20 pm. Another Air Asia flight will commence service from Kolkata from May 11 onwards. The flight will depart from Kolkata at 9 am and arrive at Bagdogra at 10.20 am. It will depart from Bagdogra at 10.45 am and arrive at Kolkata at 11.55 am.At present there are 24 domestic flights connecting Bagdogra and one international flight from Paro in Bhutan to Bangkok, Thailand. Bagdogra is connected with Bangkok, Bangalore, Bombay, Kolkata, Delhi, Guwahati and Paro. “With night landing facilities, more flights are coming in. Passenger traffic is increasing by the day. On Thursday, the outbound passenger load was 3,872,” stated Sahay.
Kolkata: State Consumer Affairs minister Sadhan Pande on Monday handed over a cheque of Rs 7.90 lakh to an NRI, who is presently lodged in London, duped with the promise of getting a land on the southern fringes of the city.”Octogenarian Dilip Bakshi had written to Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee from London stating that the National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission has recently upheld a verdict of the state consumer forum and urged her to make arrangements for paying the compensation amount for being unable to hand over his land within the promised time. I was instructed by the CM’s office to do the needful and I acted accordingly,” Pande said. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeThe minister handed over a cheque of Rs 7.9 lakh to Bakshi’s brother Sudip Bakshi, who accepted the cheque on behalf of his elder brother.He is presently settled in Baishnabghata area. Dilip had purchased a plot of land at Pailan on the southern fringes of the city and had moved the state forum in 2012 over the inordinate delay in handing over the land. After the verdict of compensation in the state forum, the land owner moved to higher forums challenging the verdict.”On behalf of my elder brother, I sincerely thank the Chief Minister and the Consumer Affairs department,” Sudip Bakshi said.